Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Research

Project 1. Development of sensor-regulated tissue specific laser surgery using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

The objective of this project is to use Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to differentiate various tissue types during laser surgery in order to prevent the damage of critical tissues, such as nerve.  Another part of the project is to use the technique to identify cancerous tissue from healthy tissue. Ultimately, the project is aimed to prove the applicability of LIBS as a feedback mechanism to a laser surgery system for a tissue specific ablation and to use the technique as a detection method. In the project, nano-second laser pulses generate plasma from the surface of the target samples. The atomic emissions from the excited atoms in the plasma are detected to provide information about which elements are present in the samples. Since qualitative and relative quantitative information of elements is achievable  in LIBS, analysis on the spectra from the tissues can provide tissue specific information. 

PhD student Fanuel Mehari is responsible for this project in cooperation with Dr. med. Florian Stelzle, Dr. med. Dr. med. dent. Emeka Nkenke (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. med. dent. Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, Prof. and Dr.-Ing. Katja Tangermann-Gerk (blz, Bavarian Laser Center, Germany), Prof. Michael Schmidt (Lehrstuhl für Photonische Technologien, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany)

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Project 2. Development of Fiber Sensor for In Vivo Monitoring of Epithelium Vessel/Capillary Spatial Pattern Alterations

The goal of this project is to develop a fiber sensor for real time monitoring of epithelium vessel/capillary density/modulation pattern based on spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra for early signs of shock and of cancer development detection.

PhD student Rajesh Kanawade is responsible for this project in cooperation with Dr. Genadi Sayko (IC, Toronto, Canada)

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Project 3. Development of Video Endoscopy Hyperspectral and Fluorescence Imaging Diagnostic and Biopsy/Microsurgery Guidance for Stomach Cancer

 

The overall scope of this project is to develop a prototype video endoscopy system that is capable of acquiring fluorescence and reflectance images over a wide range of wavelengths in human stomach using tunable acoustic-optical filter for revealing pre-cancer and cancer loci and providing a surgical guidance for removal of the malignancies.

PhD student Angelos Kalitzeos is responsible for this project in cooperation with Prof. Dr. med. Markus F. Neurath, Prof. Dr. med. Eckhart G. Hahn, MME (Bern), Prof. Dr. med. Martin Raithel, Dr. med. Jonas Mudter, Dr. med. Yurdaguel Zopf (Medizinische Klinik 1, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany)

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Project 4. Development of Nanoparticle Photosensitizers for Singlet Oxygen Based Photodynamic Therapy and Disinfection

The main goal for this project is development of a novel application of nanoparticles from a new classes of inorganic photosensitizers (silicon, combined silica-metal etc.) for suppression of pathogenic flora for contemporary patient care in dermatology, dentistry, gastroenterology, and other areas of conservative and surgical therapy to treat localized infections in vitro, animal models, and patients, including dental and periodontal disinfection, antimicrobial therapy against Helicobacter pylori in the stomach, pathogen inactivation in blood products, wound healing and cosmetology, acne treatment, abdominal surgery, and pulmonology. A wide use of antibiotics in the second half of the twentieth century has led to the crisis of antibiotic and chemical resistance among pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Intensive efforts are now placed on the advancement of alternative antimicrobial therapeutics, to which bacteria are not able to easily develop resistance. One of these may be a modality recently termed photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). PACT is based on a combination of photosensitizer (PS) chromophores, dissolved oxygen and light, promoting a phototoxic effect on the treated microorganisms, in general via oxidative damage, known as photodynamic therapy. The primary morbidity of PACT is the potential phototoxicity of normal light-exposed mammalian cells persisting after the treatment for days or even weeks. An ideal photosensitizer should be removable from tissue surfaces or solutions once the PACT session is completed. Reducing the particles from micron-to nanosize scale leads to a greater specific surface area, potentially releasing more reactive oxygen species during PACT.

This project is performed in cooperation with Prof. Andrei Kabashin and his lab (CNRS, Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procédés Photoniques, Faculté des Sciences de Luminy, Université de Méditerranée, Marseille, France)

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Project 5. Biospectroscopy Facility for Determination of Microscopic Optical Properties of Biological Tissues (Absorption, Scattering and Anisotropy factor) within the wavelength range 190-2500 nm and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission matrix within the wav

A new biospectroscopy facility is offered to the local biological and medical community to determine optical properties of biological tissue in vitro and ex vivo including light absorption and scattering spectra, multiwavelength scattering phase function, multiwavelength refraction index, fluorescence emission-excitation matrix. Clinical Photonics Lab will provide a scientific support with sample preparation, measurements, data processing (including inverse Monte-Carlo simulation), and research cooperation with interpretation of the results obtained. Solid, soft optical and opto-acoustic phantoms can be fulfilled with prescribed optical properties.

PhD student Fabian Eisa (Institute für Medizinische Physik, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany) is responsible for this project in cooperation with summer student Janis Beckert (Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany), Dr. Ralph Hohenstein (Lehrstuhl Photonische Technologien (LPT), Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany) and Prof. Dr. Achim Langenbucher (Institute für Medizinische Physik, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany)

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Project 6. Intelligent stimulators of specific channels of visual perception: improvement of Cyclopean 3D vision based on 3D video simulation setup to enhance visual perception channels

Visual perception in humans can be conditionally deconvoluted into different sub cortical and cortical visual pathways including spatial contrast, spatial orientation, texture, motion, binocular disparity (3D Vision), and colour. The purpose of this project within the scientific group 'Technical and Biological Vision' is to create and test intelligent stimulators of the specific channels of the visual perception. In this project we focus on cyclopean 3-D-vision in humans. The ultimate goal is to elaborate a concept of a new type of a vision stimulator, improving specific perception. The main idea of the project is to develop a 3D interactive training system to maximize the efficiency of gaining sport skills of sportsmen (at the first stage of the project) and recovering movement functions of patients (at the second stage of the project).

This project is performed in cooperation with Interdisciplinary Center of Ophthalmic Preventive Medicine and Imaging (Prof. G. Michelson), Optalmology Clinic (Prof. J. Kremers), Chair of Pattern Recognition (Prof. J. Hornegger), Chair of Computer Graphics (Marc Stamminger)

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